Persian grammar                                        Add to favorit Börja här Utskrift

Persian grammar is similar to many other Indo-European languages, especially those in the Indo-Iranian family. Since Middle Persian it has had a relatively simple grammar, having no grammatical gender and few case markings.

Contents

Word Order

While Persian has a Subject Object Verb (SOV) word order, it is not strongly left-branching. The main clause precedes a subordinate clause. The interrogative particle āyā (آیا), which asks a yes/no question, appears at the beginning of a sentence. Modifiers normally follow the nouns they modify, although they can precede nouns in limited uses. The language uses prepositions, uncommon to many SOV languages. The one case marker, (را), follows the accusative noun phrase.

Normal sentences are structured subject-preposition-object-verb. If the object is specific, then the order is "(S) (O + "rā") (PP) V". However, Persian can have relatively free word order, often called "scrambling." This is because the parts of speech are generally unambiguous, and prepositions and the accusative marker help disambiguate the case of a given noun phrase.

Nouns

Persian nouns have no grammatical gender. Persian nouns mark with a accusative marker only for the specific accusative case; the other oblique cases are marked by prepositions. Possession is expressed by special markers: if the possessor appears in the sentence after the thing possessed, the ezāfe may be used; otherwise, alternatively, a pronominal genitive enclitic is employed. Non-human nouns generally pluralize with -, while human forms generally pluralize with -ān; special rules exist for some nouns borrowed from Arabic.

Pronouns

Persian is a null-subject, or pro-drop language, so nominal pronouns are optional. Pronouns generally are the same for nominative, accusative, oblique, and genitive (ezāfe) cases. The first-person singular accusative form mæn rā can be shortened to mærā. Pronominal genitive enclitics (see above) are different from the normal pronouns, however.

Normal Forms

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

mæn

2nd

to

shomā

3rd

u

ānhā (non-human/human),
ishān (human only)

Adjectives

Adjectives typically follow the nouns they modify, using the ezāfe construct. However, adjectives can precede nouns in compounded derivational forms, such as khosh-bækht (lit. good-luck) 'lucky', and bæd-kār (lit. bad-deed) 'wicked'. Comparative forms make use of the suffix tær (تَر), while the superlative form uses the suffix tærin (تَرین).

Verbs

Normal verbs can be formed using the following pattern:

( NEG - DUR or SUBJ/IMPER ) - root - PAST - PERSON - ACC-ENCLITIC

  • Negative prefix: - changes to ne before the Durative prefix

  • Durative prefix: mi

  • Subjunctive/Imperative prefix: be

  • Past suffix: d - changes to t after unvoiced consonants

Person Suffixes

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

æm

im

2nd

i

id

3rd

æd

ænd

Accusative Enclitics

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

æm

emān

2nd

æt

etān

3rd

æsh

eshān

Conjugations

  • Examples given for first-person singular form of khordæn 'eat'.


 

   Active Voice

Mood

Tense

Romanization

Perso-Arabic

Indicative

Present

mi-khoræm

می‌خورم

Indicative

Preterite (Simple Past)

khordæm

خوردم

Indicative

Imperfect

mi-khordæm

می‌خوردم

Indicative

Perfect

khorde æm

خورده ام

Indicative

Pluperfect

khorde budæm

خورده بودم

Indicative

Future

khāhæm khord

خواهم خورد

Subjunctive

Simple (Present)

bekhoræm

بخورم


 

   Passive Voice

Mood

Tense

Romanization

Perso-Arabic

Indicative

Present

khorde mi-shævæm

خورده می‌شوم

Indicative

Preterite

khorde shodæm

خورده شدم

Indicative

Imperfect

khorde mi-shodæm

خورده می‌شدم

Indicative

Perfect

khorde shode æm

خورده شده ام

Indicative

Pluperfect

khorde shode budæm

خورده شده بودم

Indicative

Future

khorde khāhæm shod

خورده خواهم شد

Subjunctive

Simple (Present)

khorde shævæm

خورده شوم

Subjunctive

Perfect

khorde shode bāshæm

خورده شده باشم

Compound Verbs

Light verbs such as kærdæn are often used with nouns to form what is called a compound verb, light verb construction, or complex predicate. For example, the word "sohbæt" means "conversation", while "sohbæt kærdæn" means "to speak". One may add a light verb after a noun, adjective, preposition, or prepositional phrase to form a compound verb. Only the light verb (e.g kærdæn) is conjugated; the word preceding it is not affected. For example:

dāræm sohbæt mikonæm ("I am speaking")

sohbæt kærde æm ("I have spoken")

sohbæt khāhæm kærd ("I will speak")

As can be seen from the examples, the head word (in this case, sohbæt) remains unchanged throughout the conjugation, and only the light verb kærdæn is conjugated. They may be compared to English verb particle constructions, such as hand down (leave as an inheritance) and set up (arrange), or German compound verbs, such as Rad fahren (to ride by bicycle) and zurückgehen (to go back).

Some other examples of compound verbs with kærdæn are:

  • fekr kærdæn, "to think"

  • færāmush kærdæn, "to forget"

  • gærye kærdæn, "to cry"

  • telefon kærdæn, "to call, to telephone"

  • tæmir kærdæn, "to fix"

Auxiliary Verbs

  • bāyæd - 'must': Not conjugated

  • shāyæd - 'might': Not conjugated

  • tævānestæn - 'can': Conjugated

  • khāstæn - 'want': Conjugated. Subordinating clause is subjunctive

  • khāstæn - 'will': Conjugated. Main verb is tenseless

Prepositions

Prepositions in Persian generally behave similarly to those in English – they precede their object. They include the following:

Prepositions

Persian

English

æz (از)

from

bā (با)

with

bær (بر)

on, upon

bærā-ye (برای)

for

be (به)

to

bi (بی)

without

dær (در)

at, in

mesl-e (مثل)

like

tā (تا)

till, until

Source: wikipedia.org

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